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Fatty Liver Disease | Q&A

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[MUSIC] Non-alcoholic fatty liver
disease is a condition in which the accumulation of
excess fat in the liver, not due to excessive
alcohol consumption. It's a very common condition
in clinical practice. It's affect about 20% of
the world population. [MUSIC] We care about fatty liver
disease because it is one of the problem which can cause
liver failure, liver cancer, and the need for
liver transplantation. The presence of extra
fat in the liver can cause chronic irritation
of the liver cells and subsequently can cause
further liver damage. [MUSIC] There are three common causes
of fatty liver disease, being overweight,
patient's with diabetes and also patient's with
high cholesterol. Keeping in mind some people
with normal body weight can have fatty liver disease. The increasing epidemic of fatty
liver disease has been recently attributed to overweight and
the high prevalence of diabetes. [MUSIC] Fatty liver disease used to be a
very rare condition in children. However, recently with the
increasing problem of obesity in children, fatty liver disease became
affecting about 10% of children.

[MUSIC] Early in the course
of the disease, many patients have no symptoms. However, when the scaring and the inflammation of
the liver progress. Many patients start to
complain of problems related to enlargement
of the liver or fatigue. If complications happened from
fatty liver disease such as cirrhosis or complete scaring, patient can have problems with
bleeding and symptoms of other complications of liver
disease such as liver cancer. [MUSIC] When we do a blood test for
a patient with fatty liver disease, many patients will have
elevated liver function test.

Imaging modalities can
be very helpful for diagnoses of fatty
liver disease, such as ultrasound,
CT scan, MRI, or fiber scan. Occasionally, patients might
need liver biopsy to assess the significance of
the damage in the liver. [MUSIC] Fatty liver disease in early
stage could be completely reversible. However, if patient continues
to have excess fat in the liver. This can lead to complete
scarring of the liver, or what we call sclerosis. And subsequently liver failure,
and its complications such as liver cancer, and the need for
liver transplantation. Fatty liver disease become
a more common indication for liver transplantation globally. [MUSIC] There is no specific treatment
for fatty liver disease.

The most important step is
to control the risk factors to liver disease such as high
cholesterol and controlling the blood sugar, and lose
weight for obese individuals. [MUSIC] There are recent studies which
confirm clearly the benefit of coffee for
patients with liver disease. There have been some suggestions
that drinking two or three cups of coffee a day
will prevent liver cancer, and liver scarring in patients
with fatty liver disease.

[MUSIC] The most important food to avoid
for patients with fatty liver disease, are food rich in
refined sugars, such as bread, rice, potatoes and corn. Also we recommend for patients
to consume lean meat and increase the amount
of vegetables and salads in their diet. [MUSIC] At Johns Hopkins Hospital we
are conducting several clinical trials. Looking for a novel therapy for
fatty liver disease. We're using tablets form for
specific drugs that alter the pathophysiology
of fatty liver disease. What we are hoping is to
prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. To reduce the amount of scarring
in the liver from fatty liver disease. And eventually preventing liver
cancer and liver failure. [MUSIC].

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