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The Basics of APA In-text Citations | Scribbr 🎓

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So you’ve been told to include in-text citations in your paper but don’t know what exactly that entails. No worries, we’ve got you covered! In this video, we will go through what to include in an APA in-text citation where to place it in a sentence and what to do with missing information. Let’s jump right in! Hi, I’m Jessica from Scribbr, here to help you achieve your academic goals. Let’s start with what’s an in-text citation. An in-text citation is a concise way to identify the source of certain information. It helps the readers to locate the corresponding entry in the reference list at the end of your paper. The in-text citation consists of the author’s last name, the publication year and if you’re citing a specific part of a source the page number or other locator such as a timestamp paragraph number or even a heading.

Page numbers are not required when you’re referring to the source as a whole. By the way, you can generate your in-text citations super easily with Scribbr’s free citation generator! Now, there are 2 ways to integrate the in-text citation: parenthetical and narrative. For parenthetical citations, write the author name and publication year within parentheses and place it at the end of the sentences, just before the period. For narrative citations, some information is incorporated in the running text. As you can see from these two examples the year and page number are placed within the parentheses. It’s either placed right after the author’s name, or at the end of the sentence just before the period. When your citation contains multiple authors, it can be quite confusing.

Now, if your source has 2 authors, you use an ampersand between them followed by the year. So here, it’s Taylor ampersand Kotler comma 2018. If your source has 3 to 5 authors, then for the first citation, you list out all the authors and only use the ampersand for the final one. From the second citation onwards, you only need the first author name followed by et al, which means and others. And if a source has 6 or more authors, use “et al.” right from the first citation. Don’t forget the comma! In the 7th edition, the in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened right from the first citation using et al. Check out this video if you’re interested to see what has changed in the 7th edition! Sometimes, you just can’t find all the information you need to cite a source. Luckily, there are some guidelines for this. If the author is unknown, but you know the organization that created it, for example Scribbr, then you should use the organization name.

If you don’t, then use the title. When using the title, format it the same way as in the reference list, so either in italics or in double quotation marks. You might also come across sources without a publication year. In that case, use n.d. for no date. If your source doesn’t have page numbers, include a chapter or paragraph number instead. With the rules I just mentioned, dealing with in-text citations should just be all smooth-sailing from here. However, if you ever come across an exception, just check out the article in the description. For example, when you find yourself in a situation where two authors have the same last name.

Fun fact! Did you know there’s 2 million Smiths in the U.S. alone according to the 2010 US census? And that’s it for this video, if you’ve learnt something give this video a like and if you have any questions ask away and I’ll reply! See you soon!.

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